ANCIENT MACEDONIA (from the Neolithic Age to the Middle Ages)

The territory of Ancient Macedonia, view in the pre-historic period had been settled by many tribes. It extended in the south-western part of the actual ethnic and geographical border of Macedonia, viagra in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. The name "Macedon" for the first time was mentioned in the 8th century B.C. and it defined the eponym of the Macedonians. The region north-east of the mountain Pindus to the Prespa Lake, prescription was determined primarily by the name "Macedonia". From this space the Macedonian tribes moved south-eastwards and created a nucleus of the future Macedonian state (the region between the rivers Ludias, Moglenitsa nowadays, and Axius, Vardar nowadays).

Autochthonous ancient Macedonian tribes had lived in tribal communities being led by their leaders till the middle of the 6th century B.C. Herodotus considered king Perdiccas I (650 - 630 B.C.) a founder of the Macedonian kingdom.
Under the leadership of Philip II (357/355 - 336 B.C.), the kingdom of Macedonia had a great political and economic boom. A regular army (the Macedonian phalanx), a unique coin and a centralized machinery of government were established on the whole territory of Macedonia. Thus were created conditions for a complete formation of the antique Macedonian people.

His son Alexander III the Great, in the history known as Alexander of Macedon (336 - 323 B.C.) destroyed the Persian Empire after the famous victories at Granikos, Issus and Gaugamela, expanding the hegemony of Macedonia till Egypt and India, proclaiming himself a czar (331 B.C.). After the death of Alexander the Great his multiethnic empire disintegrated into a few independent states (Macedonia, Thrace, Egypt, Asia and Pergamon).

After the Roman Empire division into Eastern and Western one in 395, Macedonia was included into the Eastern Roman Empire (Bysantium) till the first half of the 7th century when it was settled by the Slavs.

MEDIEVAL MACEDONIA (9th - 16th century)

The Slavic tribes - Brsiaks, Strumians, Dragovits, Smolians, Rinhins and Velegezits had settled the territory of Macedonia from the end of the 6th century till the middle of the 7th century. The ancient Macedonian population that was found there was assimilated by the majority of the Slavic population. The toponimes were also Slavonicized. The so-called Sclavines were organized with tribal leaders at the head, who had been trying to conquer Salonica with united forces and establish a medieval state in Macedonia during the 7th and the 8th century. Feudalism began to develop in Macedonia as a result of the increased property differentiation.

Under the influence of the early Christianization, and afterwards as a result of the activity of the well-known Slavic educators, the brothers St. Cyril and St. Methodius and their disciples St. Clement and St. Naum, Macedonia became one of the oldest and the most developed centers of the Slavic literacy, with the city of Ohrid as its milieu.

MACEDONIA DURING THE TURKISH RULE (end of the 14th - beginning of the 20th century)

It was a long period of five hundred years (1395 - 1912) when Macedonia within her historic and ethnic borders shared the destiny of the powerful Ottoman Empire, as one of the central Balkan regions. The Turkish state in Macedonia imposed completely its military, political, administrative and tax system and started the Islamization of the Macedonian Christian population. This process was evident during the 16th and the 17th century especially in Western and Eastern Macedonia. Nevertheless, the Macedonian Islamized population (Macedonians Moslems nowadays) preserved the Macedonian native language.

During the Turkish period the Ohrid Archbishopric preserved the independence and turned into the main supporter of the Macedonian originality.


In 1912 the Balkan states - Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro formed an alliance in order to expel the Turkish administrative and military authorities from the Balkans. After expelling the Turks from Macedonia during the First Balkan War (1912/13), the occupation interests of the allied countries towards Macedonia caused another war among the allied states - The Second Balkan War (1913). Consequently, it wasn’t taken into consideration the prospective autonomy of Macedonia. The aspiration of the neighbouring countries was advocated by the Great Powers which protected their own interests.

Taking into consideration the Bucharest Peace Treaty of August 1913, the partition of Macedonia was executed resulting into hard and long-term consequences concerning the uniqueness of the ethnic tissue of the Macedonian people and the territorial entity of Macedonia. In accordance with the Treaty, Greece has grabbed the Southern Macedonia with the coast (Aegean Macedonia), Serbia - the Northern and the Middle Macedonia (Vardar Macedonia) and Bulgaria - the Eastern Macedonia (Pirin Macedonia) This partition caused new and more emphasized national, political, economic, cultural and economic oppressions of the Macedonian people.

Macedonian people had the same destiny in the period of the World War I when they were mobilized in the armed forces of other countries fighting for foreign ideals which lead to complete denial and non-existence of Macedonia on the historic map.


After the April War (1941) and the capitulation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Macedonia was again partitioned, this time by the fascist occupiers - Bulgaria, Germany, Italy and Albania. The Macedonian people suffered a new partition, followed by the political oppression, national assimilation and economic exploitation.

The Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ) i.e. the Communist Party of Macedonia (KPM) took resolute attitude concerning the struggle against the fascism, taking over the part of an organizer and leader of the uprising of the Macedonian people. The correct attitude of the KPJ concerning the Macedonian national question offered numerous perspectives concerning the national liberation of the Macedonian people and establishment of the Macedonian state because of which the Macedonian people took part in the struggle in mass.

On August 2, 1944 the historic I Session of the ASNOM was held on which constitutive decisions were made concerning the establishment of the Macedonian state, as a federal unit within the frames of the Yugoslav federation, and the Macedonian language became official.


After the First Session of ASNOM, Macedonia continued her development as a federal state within the frames of the Yugoslav Federation. It was a period of normalization of the social life, first elections were organized in which were elected the governmental agencies and the first government was established on April 16, 1945.

With the first constitution from 1946, NR Macedonia has been constituted into a sovereign people’s republic within the frames of the Yugoslav federation. Macedonia has been functioning with all attributes as a state: the sovereign authority, territorial integrity, national flag and coat of arms, the official language, the NR Macedonia citizenship and so on. The governmental agencies such as: People’s Assembly, government, republic and local administration, courts etc. have been constituted and are in function. In accordance with the Constitutions of NR i.e. SR Macedonia from 1953, 1963 and 1974, the governmental and legislative constitution of Macedonia and her rights on sovereignty and independence have been strengthened. With the constitutive acts the basic rights and the freedom of the citizen have been guaranteed, especially the rights of the national minorities having been realized in their free cultural development and the usage of the native language.


The names "Macedonia" and "Macedonians" have been in existence and survived throughout the history, also been, at the same time negated. The struggle concerning the legitimacy over the territory of Macedonia is in close connection with this names. The Macedonian people has been formed within the frames of geographic and historical ground of Macedonia in a continuity of developing process (tribe, people, nation). It has acquired the legitimacy over the territory of Macedonia and became the inheritor of all historical and cultural autochthonous traditions and values, carrying out the name of Macedonia through centuries as his ethnic and historically legitimate name.

The existence of the Macedonian nation was permanently disturbing the neighboring countries (Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Albania). The common attitude in their policy was the unrecognizing of the existence of the Macedonian nation, language and state. Macedonian people from all parts of Macedonia under the foreign authorities, opposed to their policies by struggling for national liberty and its own state i.e. for the Macedonian national and official name.

After the establishment of the Macedonian federal state (1944), for the first time in the contemporary history of Macedonia, the name Macedonia – Macedonians have been official. A period when the process of international affirmation of the Macedonian state, nation, language and culture has began.

In 1944, Serbia recognized the Macedonian nation and state, which was confirmed by the treaty of 1996, recognizing R. Macedonia under the constitutional name.

Excluding the period 1944 – 1948, the Macedonian name and language has been permanently negated by the Bulgarian government, although in 1991 it recognized the independence of the Republic of Macedonia. Since 1991, Greece has put in dispute the name of the Republic of Macedonia, tending to negate the historical identity and the legitimacy of the Macedonian nation and language, although she recognized Macedonia as a state within the frames of SFR Yugoslavia. According to the Temporary Agreement from 1995, Greece has recognized the independence of Republic of Macedonia and her territorial integrity.

The complete affirmation of the Macedonian state, nation, language and culture has been achieved during the process of gaining independence and international recognition of the Republic of Macedonia. The recognition of the Republic of Macedonia under her constitutional name, by numerous countries, has denoted the triumph of the historical truth and justice, signifying, at the same time, the affirmation of the historical legitimacy and the continuity of the Macedonian nation and state.

The policy on peace and active cooperation of the Republic of Macedonia with the neighboring and the other countries and the determination, on her side, to use the international standards, is the best way of leading to prosperity and surpassing the events from the past.

Data taken from: State Archives of the Republic of Macedonia 
Macedonia  through the Centuries)


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