Although in Voivodina there are traces of civilisation dating 60 000 years back, sildenafil baroque and classicism are the dominant styles found in the cultural heritage of this region, salve the most prominent among which are the works of visual art ranging from icons, manuscript books, woodcarving pieces, and paintings whose topic is urban life, while portraits appear as a novelty. Architectural heritage are monuments of public engineering – sacral, civil and business buildings.
Cultural Heritage from 18th century to nowdays
Cities and villages started to develop faster in the 18th century when Vojvodina became part of Austria under the rule of Maria Theresa who made significant improvements to the living standards in settlements. Zoning plans were designed and settlements were built according to them, in grid form or following the configuration of the terrain.
The Petrovaradin Fortress on the Danube is one of the largest in Europe, a symbol of Novi Sad, the capital of Voivodina. Its construction lasted from 1692 to 1780. It consists of the Upper and Lower Fortresses (the latter called Podgradje) which constitute a unique whole. The system of the underground military galleries in the Petrovaradin Fortress was built in four defensive positions and is 16 000 metres long with 12 000 loopholes, while the ceiling is high enough to provide shelter even for horses.
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Baroque has left its permanent mark on Vojvodina, then a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (Voivodina joined to Serbia on 25th November 1918), so the Central European influences and lifestyles are dominant, although there is some heritage from the era of the Turkish rule (the Turkish bath - hamam in Bac), which lasted from the 16th to 17th century, in some areas even to the 18th century. The Baroque heritage is visible everywhere. In Vrsac there is the 18th century Bishop’s Palace with a great treasure of religious objects, a library and a gallery of portraits.
The National Park of Fruska Gora is famous for its multitude of Orthodox Christian monasteries and churches clustered in this mountain, which were the places of the spiritual development and cradles of culture for centuries (icons, manuscript books, etc.). There are now 16 of them remaining, some are being restored such as Krusedol. There is also the same number of lakes in Fruska Gora.
The small Baroque town of Sremski Karlovci is situated on the slopes of Fruska Gora. It has been the seat of Metropolitanate since 1713. Following its increasing political significance, important public buildings were erected, such as the city administration building in the Empire style in 1811; the palace of Baron Rajacic built in the neoclassicist style is now home to the Museum of Sremski Karlovci, housing several collections, while the cellar holds archaeological remains from the surrounding area.
In the north of Voivodina, situated about ten kilometres from the border with Hungary, lies Subotica, a town with significant traces of art nouveau, baroque and neoclassicism. The City Hall is one of town symbols.
The Reichl Palace is also one of Subotica’s landmarks. The most beautiful decorative elements on its façade are made of famous Zsolnay ceramics. The building houses the Town Gallery.
Portable works of art make a significant part of Voivodina cultural heritage. Generally well preserved artworks originated between the 16th and 20th century. Works from the late 15th and early 16th centuries are kept in museums and late medieval monasteries, among which those in Fruska Gora stand out. After the great Austrian-Turkish wars in the late 17th century, there was a sudden expansion of European influences and their fusion with the existing Byzantine heritage. In Voivodina, Serbian art skipped centuries - the epochs of Renaissance and mannerism - joining the European art with the force of the authors’ talent. The artworks from the early 18th century are on permanent display in the Gallery of Matica Srpska in Novi Sad.
Realism in visual arts was the leading style in the late 19th century, depicting everyday life.
Matica Srpska is the oldest Serbian national cultural institution founded in 1826 in Budapest, relocated to Novi Sad in 1864.
The Matica Srpska Library holds over 3.000.000 books and publications offering great opportunities for scientific research. It exchanges publications with 350 libraries and institutions worldwide.
The Museum of the City of Novi Sad and the Museum of Vojvodina are institutions which hold permanent displays and keep parts of cultural-historical heritage, organise exhibitions, concerts, professional meetings and publish publications. The Provincial Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments and the City Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments are institutions whose field of work is the protection and preservation of architectural heritage and are also in the publishing business.
The Pavle Beljanski Memorial Collection in Novi Sad keeps anthological works of modern art from the early 20th century from all parts of ex Yugoslavia, and the newly founded Museum of Contemporary Art of Voivodina in Novi Sad presents the continuity of artistic and civil life in Voivodina, the home of representatives from 26 different national communities who respect each others.
The improvement of the economy and industry in Voivodina from the 18th century followed the European progress. The railroad routs were one of the most diversified in Europe.
“Salash” style farms are a unique feature of Vojvodina. These are family estates where people lived and worked (agriculture, cattle breeding, food production). They are now being revived. Structures used for economic purposes were windmills, wells, drying houses, etc. The windmills in Melenci and Curug are under protection. There were also breweries, steam mills, wineries, pumping stations, railroads, locks, etc.
Rich families fromVojvodina built castles they lived or vacationed in. This architecture confirms the development of the rich middle class whose members had profits which were invested in spaces refining where they lived in. Summer residences and castles deteriorated in time, as well as their wealthy owners. One of 40 preserved examples is in Kulpin, where the Museum of Agriculture is housed.
Cultural Heritage from the prehistory to the 18th century
The Bronze Age was the most developed prehistoric period. The period from 2000 BC to 1000 BC saw the height of the development of settlements, when fortifications were erected on the hillsides of the Vrsac Mountains, Fruska Gora, and the banks of the major rivers, such as the forts in Gomolava, Starcevo, Kuva-Begec.
Roman legions appeared in the late 1st century BC and early 1st century AD. They settled in Srem as well, where their centre was Sirmium (nowadays Sremska Mitrovica), whose great importance is reflected in the fact that, in its height, it was the Imperial City (3rd and 4th century). There was the Imperial Palace, hippodrome, basilicas, theatres, public thermae (baths), plumbing and sewer system, strong walls; a forum was also erected, where daily activities took place, while in the rich people’s houses there was central heating.
The Franciscan monastery in Bac founded in the 12th century; complex with a church and lodgings. It suffered damage repeatedly and was completely restored in the 18th century. There are apparent influences of baroque, from the Turkish and late gothic periods.
Araca (close to Novi Becej) - its construction commenced in the 12th or the early 13th century. Rich architectural ornamentation on the façade has been preserved in fragments. After the Turks withdrew it was left in ruins. A tombstone with an image of a saint and the names of donors from the 11th century has been discovered.
The fortress in Bac has preserved the monumentality of medieval fortifications. It was built in the 14th century and is located on the former island of Mostonge. The main tower reaches 18 metres and is well preserved.